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This article was Originally Published on Aug 25, 2005 in Volume: 4  Issue: 2

Space Strategist

Interview with Lieutenant General Larry J. Dodgen

Commanding General Army Space and Missile Defense Command Army Forces Strategic Command

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Lieutenant General Larry J. Dodgen assumed command of the Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Forces Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT) on December 16, 2003.

Dodgen, who graduated from Louisiana State University in 1972 with a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering, also holds an MBA in public administration from the University of Missouri and a master’s degree in National Security and Strategy from the Naval War College. His military education includes the Air Defense Officer Basic and Advanced Courses, the Army Command and General Staff College and the Naval War College.

Dodgen began his military career in an air defense artillery unit of the 1st Cavalry Division. He held a variety of air defense artillery posts until being assigned in 1984 to the Army Chemical School as an NBC analyst, and later as chief of the Studies Branch. From June 1989 to December 1991, he commanded 8th Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery, leading his battalion into combat in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Storm.

After assuming the rank of brigadier general in 1996, Dodgen became the sixth deputy assistant secretary of defense for policy and missions. From May 1998 to September 2001, he was the director of the Joint Theater Air and Missile Defense Organization, and from September 2001 to December 2003, he was the commanding general of the Army Aviation and Missile Command.

Following is an edited version of testimony given by Dodgen before the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces on March 15, 2005.

Today, I appear before this committee in two roles. The first role is as the Army representative for missile defense and proponent for the ground-based midcourse defense (GMD) system. In my second role, I am a member of the joint missile defense team as the joint functional component commander for integrated missile defense (JFCC IMD) in support of the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), and the joint user representative working closely with the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), other services and combatant commanders to ensure that our national goals of developing, testing and deploying an integrated missile defense system are met.

As we speak, Army soldiers are trained and ready to operate the GMD system and are deployed at Fort Greely, AK, and the Joint National Integration Center at Shriever Air Force Base, CO. Over a year ago, we activated the GMD Brigade in Colorado Springs, CO, and a subordinate GMD Battalion at Fort Greely. These soldiers, as part of the joint team, are our nation‘s first line of defense against any launch of an intercontinental ballistic missile toward our shores. I am proud to represent them along with the other members of the Army‘s air and missile defense community.

New Army Role for Integrated Missile Defense

Integrating our missile defense capabilities is of paramount importance to the joint force. In January 2005, the commander of USSTRATCOM established a Joint Functional Component Command for Integrated Missile Defense (JFCC IMD) and appointed me as commander of JFCC IMD. The mission of the JFCC IMD is to integrate and globally synchronize missile defense systems and operations to provide an optimized layered missile defense against missiles of all ranges and in all phases of flight.

The JFCC IMD conducts USSTRATCOM ‘s responsibilities for IMD planning, coordination and integration and ensures day-to-day operational support responsibilities are coordinated. This allows USSTRATCOM to focus on strategic level integration and advocacy of their unified command plan assigned missions. JFCC IMD does not execute missile defense operations; that is a geographic combatant commander function.

JFCC IMD is one of four joint functional component commands recently established by the USSTRATCOM commander. The other three are JFCC Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JFCC ISR), JFCC Network Warfare (JFCC NW), and JFCC Space and Global Strike (JFCC S&GS). These JFCCs work in concert to accomplish their assigned global missions.

Focusing specifically on missile defense, I would like to outline how this cross mission integration works to support both the USSTRATCOM mission and that of the geographical combatant commanders. The preferred means of addressing an adversary‘s offensive missile capability is to destroy the missiles before they can be launched. JFCC ISR and the space elements of JFCC S&GS work collaboratively to locate the launch site and supporting infrastructure and provide that information to the warfighter. In essence, they “find the archer before he releases the arrow.” If successful in locating the archer, the combatant commanders attempt to destroy the missiles on the ground or render them ineffective by kinetic or non-kinetic means. Any missiles that survive the offensive strikes are then engaged by the active defense forces of the combatant commands after launch.

JFCC IMD is presently developing a flexible concept of operations (CONOPS) based on the new strategic triad and, in concert with the geographical combatant commanders, will synchronize theater missile defense plans into the overall global missile defense campaign. One of the critical responsibilities of the JFCC IMD outlined in the CONOPS is to examine the theater plans and recommend allocation of missile defense assets, as well as means to address shortfalls in active defense assets through offensive and defensive integration across multiple theaters.

Advocacy to the warfighter is as important to the JFCC IMD role as operations. One of my primary functions is to determine what the warfighter needs in the field and carry those requirements and characteristics back to the development community. To achieve this, we are in the process of operationalizing the Warfighter Involvement Process (WIP) and the development and execution of wargames and experiments to validate our operational concepts and future capability needs. In summary, the JFCC‘s mission will be to provide an optimized, integrated, missile defense system to the geographical combatant commanders.

A major part of the JFCC IMD‘s capabilities is inherent in its technical partnership with the MDA, which is charged with building our global Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). This unique relationship allows rapid deployment of assets from the MDA test bed to the warfighter and rapid implementation of technical solutions in the field. It is truly a new way of doing business.

The planning, integration and synchronization of missile defense systems includes the full missile defense spectrum of shooters (GMD, Terminal High Altitude Air Defense [THAAD], and Aegis Standard Missile-3), sensors (Upgraded Early Warning Radars, Cobra Dane Radar, Sea Based X-Band [SBX] Radar and the Forward Based X-Band Transportable [FBX-T] Radar) and command, control and battle management (C2BM) systems. Critical to this planning effort is the continued spiral development of the command, control, battle management and communications (C2BMC) capability and other collaborative planning tools that can provide dynamic and real-time analysis of courses of action.

This new joint command will be manned by Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corp personnel. Its headquarters will be located at the Joint National Integration Center, at Schriever Air Force Base, CO, allowing us to leverage the existing robust infrastructure and our strong partnership with the MDA to execute IMD planning and operational support responsibilities. The JFCC IMD, which initiated operations in February 2005, is focusing on asset management, intelligence collection, planning, and global situational awareness. We are in the process of attaining full operational capability by September 2005.

In addition to deploying a GMD system, MDA, the services and the combatant commanders are focused on improving theater air and missile defense (TAMD) capabilities within the context of the evolving BMDS, as well at the recently published integrated air and missile defense (IAMD) joint integrating concept. Both GMD and TAMD systems are vital for the protection of our homeland, deployed forces, friends and allies. Air and missile defense is a key component in support of the Army‘s core competency, providing relevant and ready land power to combatant commanders.

The president‘s budget includes approximately $1.25 billion with which the Army proposes to perform current Army air and missile defense (AMD) responsibilities and focus on future development and enhancement of both terminal phase and short-range AMD systems. In short, the Army is continuing major efforts to improve the ability to acquire, track, intercept and destroy theater air and missile threats.

The Army, as part of the joint team, is transforming its air and missile defense forces to meet the increasingly sophisticated and asymmetric threat environment encountered by the joint warfighter. A common battle command system (BCS) with integrated fire control will enable the use of a single coherent common air picture to engage the threat with any number of assets, thereby allowing Army and Joint air and missile defense forces to see first, understand first, act first, and finish decisively. This evolution will enable us to transform from point defense systems to an area defense capability with units that are tailorable and modular to support the mission needs of the Joint Force‘s requirements.

Terminal Phase BMD

The Patriot/Medium Extended Air Defense System (MEADS) capability is designed to counter theater ballistic missile threats in their terminal phase in addition to cruise missile and other air breathing threats. Combining these systems with the THAAD capability, being developed by MDA with a planned fielding in fiscal year 2009, brings an unprecedented umbrella of security to deployed U.S. forces, friends and allies well into the future.

Since the combat debut of the Patriot system during Operation Desert Storm, the Army has continued to implement a series of improvements to address the lessons learned. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, we saw the debut of the improved Patriot Configuration-3 system, including the effective use of the Guidance Enhanced Missile (GEM) and the Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) missile. During OIF, Patriot saved many lives defending against Iraqi ballistic missile attacks.

The Patriot system remains the Army‘s premier theater air and missile defense system and our nation‘s only deployed short-to-medium range ballistic missile defense capability. PAC-3 is the latest evolution of the phased materiel improvement program to Patriot. Combining developmental testing and operations, this program has enabled the development and deployment of a new high-velocity, hit-to-kill, surface-to-air missile with the range, accuracy and lethality necessary to effectively intercept and destroy more sophisticated ballistic missile threats.

MEADS is a cooperative development program with Germany and Italy to collectively field an enhanced ground-based air and missile defense capability. The MEADS program, which supports the president ‘s goal for international cooperation in missile defense, will enable the joint integrated air and missile defense community to move beyond the critical asset defense designs we see today. MEADS will provide theater level defense of critical assets and continuous protection of a rapidly advancing maneuver force as part of a joint integrated air and missile defense architecture.

Major MEADS enhancements include 360-degree sensor coverage, a netted and distributed battle manager that enables integrated fire control, and a strategically deployable and tactically mobile, air and missile defense system. While the PAC-3 missile is the baseline missile for the international MEADS program, the Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) missile is being developed to meet U.S. operational requirements. MSE will provide a more agile and lethal interceptor that increases the engagement envelope.

Combined Approach

With the approval by the defense acquisition executive, the Army embarked on a path to merge the Patriot and MEADS programs. In so doing, the Patriot/MEADS Combined Aggregate Program (CAP) was established. The objective of CAP is to achieve the objective MEADS capability through incremental fielding of MEADS major end items into Patriot. Patriot/MEADS CAP is an important capability that will operate within MDA‘s BMDS. It is, in fact, the number one Army priority system for defense against short and medium-range tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) and air breathing threats (cruise missiles and UAVs). The Patriot/MEADS CAP will be able to operate within a joint, interagency and multinational interdependent operational environment. It will provide wide-area protection at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of operations.

To comply with directions from both Congress and the Department of Defense, the Army has combined the RDT&E funding for PAC-3 and MEADS into a single funding line in the fiscal year 2006 budget request. This combined funding has enabled the Army to accelerate incremental fielding of transformational MEADS capabilities into the Patriot force. Incremental fielding reduces sustainment costs and delivers increased anti-missile defense capability across the force earlier. It also offers the most efficient use of limited, valuable resources while giving maximum flexibility in funding to meet the changing needs of the warfighter.

Patriot/MEADS CAP will provide common battle management command, control, communications, computers and intelligence, introduce lightweight deployable launchers, upgrade the PAC-3 missile, and eventually provide the full MEADS capability to the entire force. The MEADS system offers a significant improvement in strategic deployability and tactical mobility. The system uses a netted and distributed architecture with modular and configurable battle elements allowing it to integrate with other Army and Joint sensors and shooters. These features and capabilities will allow MEADS to achieve a robust 360-degree defense against all airborne threats.

The Army and the entire missile defense community continue to strive to improve our nation‘s missile defense capabilities. The Patriot and PAC-3/MEADS CAP research, development and acquisition budget request for fiscal year 2006 is approximately $887 million. This request procures 108 PAC-3 missiles, purchases spares for the system and reflects the necessary Patriot development to keep the system viable as we pursue acceleration of PAC-3/MEADS CAP capabilities. By establishing the CAP, the joint integrated air and missile defense architecture has become more robust. First, MEADS enhancements are integrated into the existing system. Second, as lessons are learned from the present missile defense capability, they will be incorporated into the MEADS follow-on system. We are confident that this path will provide our service members, allies, friends and nation with the most capable air and missile defense system possible.

Cruise Missile Defense

There exists a real and growing threat from land-attack cruise missiles (CM) in the world today. Cruise missiles are inherently very difficult targets to detect, engage and destroy because of their small size, low detection signature and low altitude flight characteristics. When armed with a WMD warhead, the effect of a cruise missile could be catastrophic. It is clear that the required systems and capabilities necessary to counter this emerging threat need to be accelerated to field a cruise missile defense (CMD) capability as soon as possible. The Army’s CMD program is an integral piece of the Joint Cruise Missile Defense architecture and we are proud of our contributions to this effort.

Critical Army components of the Joint CMD architecture are provided by the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile Defense Elevated Netted Sensor (JLENS), the Surface Launched Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (SLAMRAAM) and an integrated fire control capability. The Army, with the concurrence of the Joint Staff, has provided additional funding to these critical CMD programs to support an accelerated CMD capability. We are also working closely with the joint community to assure development of doctrine that synchronizes our military‘s full capabilities against the cruise missile threat.

JLENS brings a critically needed capability to address the growing CM threat. To support an elevated sensor, the JLENS program is developing unique lightweight fire control and surveillance radars to detect, track and identify CM threats. JLENS will support engagements using the SLAMRAAM/CLAWS, Navy Standard Missile and Patriot/MEADS weapon systems. JLENS uses advanced sensor and networking technologies to provide precision tracking and 360-degree wide-area, over-the-horizon surveillance of land attack cruise missiles. The fiscal year 2006 JLENS funding request of $106.4 million supports development of full JLENS capability, with first unit equip occurring by fiscal year 2010.

SLAMRAAM will provide a CMD system to maneuver forces with an extended battlespace and a beyond line-of-sight, non-line-of-sight engagement capability critical to countering the CM threat as well as UAV threats. SLAMRAAM uses the existing Joint AMRAAM missile currently used by the Air Force and the Navy, thereby exploiting the jointness DoD is striving to achieve. The Army and the Marine Corps are also executing a joint cooperative development for SLAMRAAM/CLAWS to meet the needs of soldiers and Marines for roles in homeland defense as well as overseas deployments.

With its responsibilities for GMD and Patriot/MEADS, the Army is an integral part of the joint team to develop and field the BMDS in defense of the nation, deployed forces, friends and allies. My role as the joint functional component commander for integrated missile defense will significantly add to the Army‘s ability to continue development of a joint BMDS to protect our warfighters and our nation. The Army has stepped up to the land-attack cruise missile defense challenge by aggressively developing the joint, integrated and networked sensor-C2-shooter architecture necessary to defeat the emerging threat.

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